THE INFINITE UNIVERSE (Part 5, Chapter 5-3)
© Eit Gaastra
CONTENTS of this website (bottom of this webpage)

Part 5 (chapters 5-1 –› 5-4) argues that AGNs may be shrunk galaxies/g-galaxies.

[May 2003: My ideas about AGNs have changed so strongly since January 2002 that adding May 2003 additions is an impossible job in this part. End May 2003]
There may be an AGN chain that starts with universal engines (4-1) slowly building up AGN activity.
The nuclei of non-AGN-spirals, like our Galaxy (with a universal engine in the galactic nucleus, 4-1), may contract while attracting hydrogen and by doing so it may start AGN activity. Thus spirals may become LINERs which may become Seyfert 2s which may become Seyfert 1s (5-1). Seyfert 1s may become radio quiet QSOs which may become radio loud quasars. (This would explain why the properties of QSOs and Seyfert galaxies show considerable overlap.) The more disk-shaped host-system of a Seyfert may shrink, meanwhile the more sphere-shaped AGN (in the Seyfert host system) may attract new (outboard) hydrogen, thus originating a new (elliptical) future host galaxy for the future AGN, i.e. quasar.

Radio quiet QSOs may attract during very long times new hydrogen, thus originating a new elliptical host galaxy (see also 4-3), but also: infalling stars/dark matter objects may make the AGN more luminous. In the LINER's and Seyfert's phases hydrogen was probably already attracted too, which may have “fed” the host galaxy as well as the AGN. Seyfert 2s may assemble material during their (possible) transformation into Seyfert 1s, which would explain why Seyfert 2s are about one magnitude fainter than Seyfert 1s. The same may be the case with Seyferts 1s during their (possible) transformation into radio quiet QSOs. And also: the same may be the case with radio quiet QSOs turning into radio loud QSOs.

Radio quiet QSOs may burst into radio loudness because of infalling new matter and thus radio quiet quasars may become radio loud quasars which later may become elliptical radio galaxies which may become (normal) ellipticals (which may become (normal) spirals, see 4-3). (Host galaxies of radio-loud QSOs are more luminous than optically inactive radio galaxies, typically by 0.5-1.0 mag for similar galaxies of comparable radio luminosity43. With radio-loud QSOs as progenitors of radio galaxies one would expect the host galaxies of radio galaxies to be more luminous than the host galaxies of radio-loud quasars. That's why I think that Seyferts and radio quiet QSOs may be the progenitors of radio galaxies (too), see 5-1.)
Or: elliptical radio galaxies may become spiral radio galaxies, which may become (normal) spirals.

One can thus think about an AGN chain, looking, for instance, at AGNs as mentioned above, but how the AGN chain really works is, of course, something to be sought out. Perhaps it can be very complicated, with all kind of transformation ways, see for instance Fig. 5-3-I. (Perhaps there can be an AGN chain like: radio galaxies –› Seyfert 1s –› Seyferts 2s –› LINERs –› normal spiral galaxy. Or: radio loud QSO –› radio quiet QSO (5-3) –› Seyfert.)

Possible (though many probably not likely) transformations of AGN types.
Figure 5-3-I
Possible (though many perhaps not likely) transformations of AGN types (NLRG = narrow-line radio galaxy, BLRG = broad-line radio galaxy; I forgot to draw an arrow from “radio quiet QSO” to “BLRG”).
The AGN chain may also depend on the amount of mass in an AGN. Perhaps that the amount of mass (sometimes) determines whether a Seyfert 1 will become a QSO (larger amount of mass) or a radio galaxy (smaller amount of mass).
Larger amounts of mass may need more time before radio activity stars, i.e. perhaps that relatively small Seyfert 1s directly can turn into a radio loud object, i.e. a spiral radio galaxy, and that relatively large Seyfert 1s turn into a radio loud object (i.e. quasar) indirectly by becoming a radio quiet QSO first. Much mass in the very core of an AGN may mean that it will take a relatively long time before radio loud activity breaks through the (then) thick mantle (5-2); and: the rotation of the very core may be faster with a smaller core which may bring radio loud activity earlier as well (5-2).
[February 2004: I got doubts about this. Perhaps that faster rotation of the core brings radio loud activity later instead of earlier, because the core is less compressed. End February 2004]

Also: AGNs may be very likely to descend from g-galaxies rather than single galaxies. Perhaps that our Galaxy together with the smaller surrounding galaxies up to 250 kpc (i.e. about half of the galaxies of our Local Group) may become a (very) small Seyfert in the far future.
[June 2004: I now rather think that the Milky Way will cannibalize the smaller surrounding galaxies (by ripping them apart and have them flow into the Milky Way, 4-1) and that the Milky Way and M33/M31 will become the nucleus of a future galaxy (4-3). So perhaps that our (whole) Local Group rather will become a small Seyfert with two (Milky Way, Andromeda) or three (Milky Way, M31, M33) nuclei in its core. End June 2004]

Most quasars are radio quiet, which may have a good reason. A universal engine (or future AGN) attracts mass. Mass that may cause a new galaxy and may fall close to or into the universal engine which then may contract, perhaps until the (radio quiet) AGN core explodes into a radio loud FR II quasar.
If so then it will probably take a long time before radio loud activity starts, thus a quasar may be a long time in a (radio) quiet state, whereas once it becomes radio loud the outpour of material will be relatively short and after that the (very fast) jets will take a certain time to vanish, which all together probably will be a short time compared with the probably much longer radio quiet attracting-mass-and-building-up-pressure phase.
Thus radio quiet quasars may be much more abundant than radio loud quasars: observations indicate 80% radio quiet versus 20% radio loud43 (though: it may (partly) also be because radio quiet QSOs may be progenitors of radio galaxies, 5-3).
A similar reasoning may explain why the space density of Seyfert 2 galaxies is 3 times the space density of Seyfert 1 galaxies43. Once a Seyfert 2 becomes a Seyfert 1 the Seyfert 1 may turn relatively fast into, for instance, a radio quiet quasar or a radio loud galaxy.

If it is true that radio quiet quasars finally can “burst” into radio loud quasars then how can this happen? As mentioned in 5-2: radio loud activity may start when the pressure, density and heat in the very core of the universal engine (or AGN) becomes so strong that certain reactions are triggered, which then may cause the radio loud jets coming out of the core.
If so then it may be likely that the energy releasing opening will be found on one pole of the (rotating) core, which then immediately will release a lot of immense pressure, thus accounting for a strong limb brightened (FR II) jet on one site of the quasar and at the same time (by releasing pressure) prohibiting the other pole to burst open.

After the release of pressure the opening may close itself and after that the quasar may contract fast and strong because of the lacuna in the core established by the outpour of matter. The quasar may close itself fiercely, thus the pole that brought the opening may not be the pole to burst the next time, i.e. after the quasar has built up enough pressure to explode again the pole on the other side of the quasar may burst open and a limb brightened jet on the other side of the quasar may be poured out. [July 2004: Perhaps it is rather because the quasar has run out of “fuel” on the pole-side that bursted first. End July 2004]
This may account for the jets we see of radio loud (FR II) quasars. FR II jets often appear on only one side of the radio source and in cases where jets are seen on both sides one side is much fainter than the other, and one jet seems to be closer to the quasar than the other43.

Thus one may think of a FR I source as a balloon that releases (all) its air and of a FR II source as a hot-water spouter on Iceland.

The space density of FR Is is 250 times the space density of FR IIs43. This may be because FR II activity may only originate when the central compact object of an AGN is extremely spherical. Very much dark matter merging slowly together to become a very spherical (massive) object may be a small chance.
With FR I sources being much more numerous one may expect that FR Is don't have to have a FR II source as progenitor. Radio quiet QSOs and Seyferts may be progenitors of FR I activity (too).

Radio-loud AGNs constitute a small minority of the AGN population, except at the very high-luminosity end of the distribution, where as many as 50% or so of AGNs are radio-loud quasars43.
Perhaps this can be because at the high-luminosity end radio-loud quasars are easier observed than radio quiet quasars, i.e. the above “observation” is not true. But I guess this is not the reason (for I think that Peterson43 would have brought it up).

A better explanation then may be: if we look at quasars with enormous fluxes we may look at objects (i.e. with the radio loud explanation of 5-2) in which enormous amounts of mass are converted into radio-loud products (like HII and electrons). Such enormous fluxes are the result of enormous amounts of assembled mass.
Where in small QSOs that start radio loud activity the radio-loud phase may be relatively short (hence 80% radio quiet versus 20% radio loud) because of rapid exhaustion of the relatively small amount of matter that can be converted, the radio-loud phase of very high-luminosity quasars may be relatively long (hence 50% radio loud quasars versus 50% radio-quiet quasars), because of a much bigger and longer supply of material that can be converted into radio loud products: when the radio loud phase of a far away and therefore big QSO starts then there probably will be very much surrounding material that can fall into the core.
[June 2004: QSOs at large z may be clusters of (radio quiet) QSOs rather than single QSOs (5-1), which too may be an explanation. End June 2004]

The space density of very high-redshift (z larger than 3.5) QSOs must be extremely low43. This is not surprising when very luminous QSOs are assemblages of enormous amounts of matter, for instance the shrinking of an (extremely) old supercluster to a g-galaxy with an extremely big and compact “big ball” (5-1). [June 2004: QSOs at large z may be clusters of QSOs rather than single QSOs (5-1), which may explain why high-redshift QSOs seem to have low space density. End June 2004]

[July 2003: Next to tired light redshift part of the quasar redshift may be due to gravitational redshift by quasars (5-4), which may make things more complicated. End July 2003]

Approximately 50% of the host galaxies of QSOs show morphological peculiarities43. This may be explained by QSOs being often in a phase in which no new (neat elliptical spherical/oval shaped) galaxy has formed itself around the old g-galaxy (yet). Also: QSOs, being old systems, may often be systems that have been torn up by gravitational forces from companion systems.
[June 2004: QSOs at large z may be clusters of QSOs rather than single QSOs (5-1), which too may be an explanation. End June 2004]

Host galaxies of radio-loud QSOs are likely to be around twice as luminous as the host galaxies of radio-quiet QSOs43. This may be easily explained with radio-quiet QSOs being progenitors of radio-loud QSOs as mentioned above. Radio-loud QSOs then will have had more time to originate bigger host galaxies by attracting (more) (outboard) hydrogen (outboard hydrogen = hydrogen from intergalactic/intercluster space, 4-4).

The soft X-ray spectral index is flatter in radio-loud objects than in radio-quiet objects43. When radio loud objects are older than radio-quiet objects, with more and hotter objects rotating/orbiting in the “big ball” (5-1), this is not surprising.

With the above mentioned normal spirals –› Seyferts –› radio-quiet QSOs –› radio-loud quasars “chain” the (typical) absolute magnitudes of different types of host galaxies (taken from Peterson43) may not be surprising:

  • Fiducial bright normal galaxy:  -19.1 + 5logh0
  • Seyfert host galaxies:  -19.4 + 5logh0
  • Host galaxies of radio-quiet QSOs:  -20.4 + 5logh0
  • Host galaxies of radio-loud quasars:  -21.1 + 5logh0

Typical B magnitudes of host galaxies of BL Lacertae objects are the highest of all:  -21.5 + 5logh0 (5-3).

If (relatively fast or not fast rotating) FR I and FR II sources spout HII into space then this may cause a certain alignment of dark or almost dark galaxies or g-galaxies that light up because they get fuelled by passing streams of HII. (Alignment of galaxies may also happen because galaxies are orbiting in a disk that is seen edge-on, 5-4.) It may cause (part of the) “walls and bridges” throughout the universe.
If FR II systems are likely to spout two lobes (bipolar) along the rotation axis of a compact source, then perhaps this may be a way of fuelling g-galaxies in 2 regions, which may form a binary system later on (which may be part of answering the question why binary systems are found in such high numbers, 4-3).

The old compact source of radio loud activity objects may become a “great attractor” in the far future (like our Great Attractor). Gamma rays and cosmic rays coming from the center of the Local Supercluster29 may be produced by such an old compact source, i.e. remains of a radio loud activity producing compact object, which may have “fuelled” the Local Supercluster extremely long ago.

A different view on galaxy formation
Radio loud activity may be the basic way of hydrogen production in the universe (5-2).
This may bring an important different clue about galaxy formation and AGN activity: if radio loudness is the key process bringing hydrogen then the concentration of hydrogen can be very different throughout the universe. This may mean that some old dark matter systems (like old g-galaxies) get very poorly fuelled by new formed hydrogen where other old dark matter systems are very much enriched by hydrogen.

Thus it may be that some old dark matter systems become very old and therefore very spherical, while the younger ones are more disk like. The spherical ones may cause ellipticals to come to existence when they are finally fuelled by hydrogen which then may originate very contracted universal engines that show strong AGN activity: broad-line radio galaxies (BLRGs) and radio loud quasars (both ellipticals).
Those type of universal engines may not be likely to bring strong rotation to the elliptical (soon), thus the absence of (strong) rotation of ellipticals may be explained.
Universal engines in the center of clusters may be quite old universal engines and hence spherical; this then may explain why giant ellipticals are found at the centers of clusters.

The younger disk like systems that are sooner fuelled with hydrogen may become spirals that show less strong AGN activity: Seyfert galaxies and radio quiet QSOs.

Thus it may be that spirals don't descend from elliptical galaxies. Or it may be a combination: spirals may descend from ellipticals (thus indirectly originating from universal engines) and spirals may originate directly from a universal engine/g-galaxy (thus without needing a preceding elliptical phase as described in 4-3).
[May 2004: I already changed my mind about this again. Spiral galaxies have dark matter distributions that are spherical (4-4). So a shrunken spiral system too is spherical when it comes to matter distribution. Thus one may expect that new galaxies are always elliptical shaped. End May 2004]

[June 2004: In big bang cosmology a lot of galaxy formation is supposed to come from the collision of galaxies. Of course, within an infinite universe there will be collisions of galaxies as well and so some galaxies are likely to be best explained by the collision of galaxies. Multiple ways of galaxy formation may coexist. End June 2004]

AGNs in ellipticals, spirals and clusters
If quasars start the chain of radio loud activity then it may make sense that they are embedded in ellipticals. A big universal engine may contract strongly because of much infalling matter. In 4-3 it is explained that new infalling matter towards a universal engine may originate an elliptical galaxy.

Perhaps a universal engine only needs a certain minimum amount of attracted matter to fall in, after which it produces (QSO) AGN activity. Thus it may be that quasars can be embedded in host galaxies that are very small, or quasars may even have no host galaxy at all, which seems to be observed29: “naked” quasars.
[June 2004: Right now I give it most chance that there are no “naked” quasars. Quasars that appear to have no host galaxy are just much further away than expected so far by big bang astronomers (4-4). End June 2004]
[September 19 2005: Recently no stellar environment was found for quasar HE0450-2958, suggesting that if any host galaxy exists, it must either have a luminosity at least six times fainter than expected a priori from the quasar observed luminosity, or a radius smaller than about 300 light-years. Typical radii for quasar host galaxies range between 6,000 and 50,000 light-years, i.e. they are at least 20 to 170 times larger. The big bang astronomers detected just besides the quasar a bright cloud of about 2,500 light-years in size. Observations showed this cloud to be composed only of gas ionized by the intense radiation coming from the quasar. It is probably the gas of this cloud which is feeding HE0450-2958, allowing it to become a quasar. An intriguing hypothesis of the researchers is that the galaxy harbouring the quasar was almost exclusively made of dark matter366. On this website it is described that quasars may come to existence by gas (from intergalactic space) streaming towards big balls of multiple dark matter objects (5-1). End September 19 2005]

Radio galaxies (or some radio galaxies) may descend from quasars. This would explain why radio galaxies are found in big ellipticals and quasars can be found in relative small ellipticals or (hardly) no elliptical at all: if radio galaxies are older the elliptical has attracted more matter.

According to Arp FR II lobes have higher redshifts than their compact sources29. Perhaps that lobes can shrink (with HII (5-2) in the lobes going to dark galaxies/g-galaxies inside the lobes?).

Why are radio galaxies FR I sources where quasars are FR II sources? The outpouring by quasars is more fiercely if radio loud activity starts with quasars. Hence it may be that quasars have limb brightened jets and radio galaxies (which seem to be weaker radio sources) are center brightened FR I sources.
Perhaps that from a certain moment, after a number of explosions (5-3), the FR II source does not close itself that fiercely anymore and thus a FR II source may become a FR I source with two less strong, and hence center brightened, bipolar jets.

The reason for FR I versus Fr II sources may be different, though. The FR I sources are less strong and they make one remind of the bipolar outflows of collapsing gas clouds in YSOs and of the bipolar outflows of collapsing red giants.
In FR I sources there may have been a collapse too: perhaps enormous amounts of matter (stars/dark matter objects) have fallen into the core of a radio quiet AGN/QSO and thus a too strong contraction of the most inner heavy object may follow, until the object “bursts” into radio loud activity (5-2). But this most inner object may not have reached a very strong spherical state as (presumed above, 5-3) with FR II sources, which may cause two (bipolar) FR I outflows.
And: radio galaxies may be younger and smaller than (radio loud) quasars and thus may have faster rotating (most) inner objects in the nucleus. More rotation means more oblateness and hence eruptions from both poles may be “easier” in radio galaxies than in quasars.

Thus radio loud quasars don't necessarily have to be progenitors of extended radio galaxies. Radio quiet QSOs may be progenitors of radio galaxies (which may (partly) explain why there are 4 times more radio quiet QSOs than there are radio loud quasars). If there is no difference between weak quiet QSOs and strong Seyfert 1s then Seyfert 1s may transform in radio galaxies (BLRGs) too (perhaps that even Seyfert 2s can transform into radio galaxies (NLRGs), which then (too) may explain why there are far more Seyfert 2s than Seyfert 1s, 5-3).

The radio-source axes of AGNs do not seem to show any preferential orientation relative to the rotation axis of the host galaxy43. Perhaps they do have preferential orientation relative to the rotation axis of the universal engine, i.e. compact source, of an AGN.
One then may wonder about the rotation axes of host galaxies and universal engines: one would expect those two axes to show, at least, some corresponding orientation. One may expect galaxies in clusters to show some orbiting preference (see Fig. 4-1-I). When host galaxies of AGNs originate from the outer regions of old g-galaxies and by (outboard, 4-4) matter “flying” in the old g-galaxy region one would expect to see at least some orbiting preference.
Such differences in orientation may later cause barred spirals to originate because the “rest of the galaxy” comes that close to the universal engine that the “rest” takes over the rotation of the universal engine, i.e. compact source (4-4).

There is a wide consensus based on many different imaging studies that radio-quiet QSOs and Seyfert galaxies tend to be found in disk systems (such as spirals and SOs) and radio-loud QSOs and BLRGs tend to be found in elliptical galaxies43.
Perhaps this is because: the AGN-disk systems shrink into spheres. Matter falls into the AGN which then (finally) bursts into radio loudness. Meanwhile the (now more spherical) universal engine/AGN has originated a (more spherical) elliptical host galaxy by attracting hydrogen (and the rotation of the universal engine/AGN may have become higher because of the shrinking; thus old AGN “big balls” may rotate faster, see hereafter, 5-3).

Young systems, as Seyferts (5-3) and BL Lacertae objects (5-3) may be, may show strong variability (i.e. big flux magnitude amplitude) because their (young) nuclei may not be very homogeneous (yet).
Older systems, as QSOs may be, may show fast variability because their nuclei may rotate fast (though this fast variability may be originated as well by more frequent supernovae).
BL Lacertae objects may show fast variability as well if their nuclei are relatively small (5-3).

If AGNs often are in the center of an old g-galaxy then AGNs often are universal engines that attract hydrogen, thus finally originating a (giant) elliptical. Ellipticals have axial rather than spherical symmetry. This then may be due to their progenitors: AGNs too have axial rather than spherical symmetry43.

A normal spiral galaxy in a large region of very empty space may be a very stable system that rotates with orbiting stars that have very low eccentricities (because there is not much gravitational pull by companion galaxies). At the same time there is low gravitational shielding by companion galaxies. What may happen is: a spiral galaxy in empty space may shrink relatively fast with (almost) circular orbiting stars.
Thus the objects in the very core of the galaxy may merge in a very stable way, i.e. a big massive object originates with very high temperatures and pressures in a nucleus surrounded by a thick strong mantle. Such fast shrinking stable spiral galaxies may start radio loud activity when the heavy inner objects “burst” into radio activity (5-2).
Recently a normal spiral galaxy (type Sa or Sb) with radio loud FR I jets has been observed (for the first time)57. The galaxy lies in a space region with a conspicuously low number of galaxies.

There is an inverse correlation between luminosity and amplitude of variability43. This can be explained by: bigger “big balls” (5-1) of more orbiting/rotating objects causing continuum will be more homogeneous and thus variability will be less when those balls rotate. And: in bigger “big balls” obscuring/microlensing foreground objects will have less impact. Also: the luminosity of supernovae will be relatively small compared to the luminosity of the big ball.

Depending on the temperature and pressure in the FR I or FR II source one may get all kind of end products with radio loudness, with certain “rules” as there may be some kind of rules with supernovae too (5-2).
One AGN radio loudness rule may be: the higher the temperature and pressure the lighter the end products (i.e. in the case that heavy elements, like uranium, break down into smaller elements, like iron (nuclei), alpha particles, protons and electrons).
This may mean that FR I sources produce relatively more heavy elements (like iron) than FR II sources, because the temperatures and pressures are (expected to be) lower in FR I sources. FR II sources thus may produce more “pure hydrogen”, i.e. the HII percentage of FR II sources may be higher than the HII percentage of FR I sources (in some Lyα-forest systems high inferred neutral-H column densities and absence of metal lines imply that metals are underabundant relative to solar values43, perhaps such systems can be produced by FR II bursts).
And: the stronger a FR II (or FR I) source the higher the HII percentage may be (because of higher temperatures and pressures). The density of absorbers (where it concerns CIV in BALs) apparently decreases with z, which has been attributed to lower metallicities at high z43 (i.e. in a big bang universe). Perhaps a better explanation may be: at high z the radio loud QSOs become stronger and thus the temperatures in the very AGN cores where the radio loud end-products are produced are higher and so the result may be that more protons are produced relative to the percentage of heavier elements.

The radio map of the double lobes of Cyg A details a wispy structure in the lobes with small, bright spots of emission8. The wispy structure and small, bright spots may be due to old g-galaxies surrounding Cyg A. The radio loud products of the central source of Cyg A may lighten up those old g-galaxies. Within the lobes of Cyg A lie “hot spots” of intense radio emission8. Those radio sources may be the same kind of objects as Sgr A* in the nucleus of our Galaxy (4-1, 5-1).
Though the bright spots may also be old knots that have left the central galaxy (as may be in the case of M87, 5-1).

Extended radio galaxies show a bending sequence from linear classical doubles to nuclear emission bunched up at one end of a tail. This sequence strongly is thought to imply that clusters of galaxies contain a hot, ionized gas (X-ray observations has confirmed the existence of gas in clusters)8.
I wonder if with no gas in a cluster bending of the extended parts of radio galaxies would also happen: perhaps that inertial forces by gravity particles (3-2) play a role in the bending.

AGNs are conspicuously absent in rich clusters, this statement is quite firm for radio-quiet QSOs43.
Rich clusters may consist of gas-fuelled old (dark g-)galaxies. Old, otherwise the galaxies wouldn't be so strongly clustered. Thus the (big) galaxies in rich clusters may, long ago, all have had their AGN active phase and perhaps therefore the galaxies in rich clusters have gone into a “AGN quiet” phase.

It may be logic that the absence of AGNs is quite firm for radio quiet QSOs. Radio quiet QSOs may need a long time to come to existence: from LINERs to Seyferts and then to radio quiet QSOs. So clustering galaxies that are starting to show AGN activity in clusters may first be LINERs and Seyferts.
And: Seyferts may not transform easily in a radio quiet quasar in a rich cluster because of too many galaxies “pulling” (i.e. gravitational shielding, 3-2) at the Seyfert which then won't shrink easily.

Luminous radio-loud quasars tend to be found in richer environments, and this tendency seems to increase dramatically for redshifts larger than z=0.343.
Above it is mentioned (5-3) that it may be logical that radio loud quasars are 50% of the QSO population at the high-luminosity end of the population. Thus radio loud quasars will also be more abundant at larger redshifts, for they won't be seen at large redshifts if they are not luminous enough. It was also argued that the radio loud quasars will be found in environments where a lot of material is assembled, i.e. a lot of galaxies come together (5-3). Thus it may be logical that radio loud quasars tend to be found in richer environments for they (may) need richer environments to become radio loud. One then may wonder about the absence of radio quiet QSOs in rich clusters, but this arguing about radio-loud QSOs concerns (more) the high-z QSOs.

One may argue with the here proposed radio loud model that every high-luminosity QSO should have radio loud activity, because in every high-luminosity QSO a big heavy matter core exists.
This may not be so, high-luminosity may be caused by many relatively small objects (5-1) orbiting a central region (with no (very) big massive central object). And also: if all QSOs do have a very massive central object then this object may have a very thick mantle that does not break easily (into radio loud activity).

Big bang astronomers think that there are more radio sources at larger distances (or large z values) than there are locally43. Larger amounts of concentrated heaps of matter may be found further away (from us) in the Universe because our (Great) Chappell (5-4) may be in a certain (young/early) evolutionary state with galaxies (still) spread out over a relatively large region of space.
But also: with tired light redshift instead of expansion redshift (and without “relativity calculation” of (z-)distances, 5-1) one may get that the distances at large distances are much bigger than expected so far.
Z = 4, for instance, is about 10 billion lightyears away with the relativistic redshift,
i.e. d=cz(1 + z/2)/H(1+ z)2 for a flat universe8 and with a Hubble constant of 50 kilometers per second per megaparsec, but it may become 78 billion lightyears with the tired light concept, i.e. d=cz/H.
[June 2004: Right now big bang astronomers place an object with a redshift z=3.2 at a distance of 11.5 billion big bang light years182 and an object of z=0.3 is placed by them at a 3.5 billion big bang light years184. If the big bang distance of 3.5 billion light-years at z=0.3 (a distance that is likely to be further away with tired light redshift) were correct for tired light too than for an object at z=3.2 extrapolation would bring: 3.2/0.3 multiplied by 3.5 billion years, which brings 37 billion years for z=3.2 (and 47 billion years for z=4). Calculation with d=cz/H with a Hubble constant of 50 kilometers per second per megaparsec brings 63 billion light years for z=3.2.
Actually, the real distance can even be much further away than calculated with a Hubble constant of 50 kilometers per second per megaparsec, because (tired light) redshift by ether/gravity may be higher within our (super)cluster than in inter(super)cluster space (1-2, 5-1). End June 2004]
Thus the space density of radio sources at larger distances may be less than expected (by big bang astronomers) so far.
(In 5-4 I reason that quasars may be much more nearby than conventional science thinks right now. With tired light redshift and gravitational redshift both may be true, 5-4, 5-4.)
[March 2004: In 1998 it was measured that Type Ia supernovae were further away then expected. Within big bang cosmology this is now explained with an accelerated expansion of the Universe because of so-called dark energy. It is much easier explained by tired light, which places galaxies in the universe further away. End March 2004]
[June 2004: Assuming that the relative amounts of hot gas and dark matter should be the same for every cluster big bang astronomers have derived distances for galaxy clusters that “show the expansion of the universe was first decelerating, and it began to accelerate about six billion (big bang light) years ago”. The observations agreed with observations of distant supernovae and are completely independent of the supernova technique122. The astronomers just measured that also other objects with a certain redshift are further away than expected, which is argued in this chapter and in 4-4.
It is just another confirmation that the big bang theory has problems that can only be solved with weird concepts like dark energy and inflation (the most popular inflation models predict much smaller temperature variations in the observed Cosmic Microwave Background than those seen in new observations of the CMB134). End June 2004]

(In contrast to the QSO population, the space density of BL Lac objects does not appear to increase with redshift, and seems in fact to decline43. BL Lacs may be young/early AGN objects (5-3) which then may explain why they are relatively more numerous in our young/early type (Great) Chappell (5-4).)

Tenuous gas clouds in intergalactic space
In the last few years more and more evidence accumulates concerning tenuous gas clouds in intergalactic space. Radio loud activity producing HII and electrons may explain Warm-Hot Intergalactic Medium (WHIM).
The luminosity function
The luminosity functions of galaxies, clusters of galaxies, QSOs and Seyferts all have the same shape, see Fig. 5-3-II.
The luminosity functions of galaxies, clusters of galaxies, QSOs and Seyferts all have the same shape.
Figure 5-3-II
The luminosity functions of galaxies8, clusters of galaxies8, QSOs43 and Seyferts43 all have the same shape.
With galaxies and clusters of galaxies transforming into AGNs (or: being progenitors of AGNs) this is, of course, no surprise. Studying such luminosity functions in detail may tell us something about the AGN chain, i.e. how certain AGNs evolve from galaxies/clusters and vice versa and how certain AGNs evolve from other AGNs. [July 2004: The luminosity function in Fig. 5-3-II being the same for galaxies and clusters of galaxies can also be seen as evidence for clusters of galaxies transforming into galaxies as described in 4-1. End July 2004]
Quasar absorption lines
After FR II radio loud activity a quasar may become radio quiet again. Thus it may be that Broad Absorption Line (BAL) clouds originate from (recombined) HII and electrons ejected by the FR II jets. It would explain the high ejecting velocities (up to 0.1 c) of BALs. It would also explain the tests that show that the covering factor for BALs seems to be low43.

BALs are only found in the spectra of radio-quiet QSOs, never in the spectra of strong radio sources43. If BALs are the products of FR II radio loudness then we won't see them in edge-on radio loud QSOs . Though perhaps when the radio loud QSO has rotated (from face-on to edge-on) and then bursts again, perhaps one day such an example may be found, i.e. a radio loud FR II or I AGN with BALs. Perhaps they already have been found. While BALs or not seen in radio-loud objects, there have been some indications that narrow CIV absorption features occur close to the emission-line redshift in radio-loud QSOs with a rate of incidence higher than expected if these systems arise in unrelated foreground objects43. This may be because the electrons of carbon are not that easily stripped of as the hydrogen electron during radio loud activity.
Perhaps face-on radio loud QSOs can't be seen if they show up as OVVs (5-3).
Another reason may be: perhaps FR II ejections rarely repeat in the same direction. Or: by the time electrons and HII have recombined to produce BALs radio loud activity has stopped (and we see a radio quiet QSO). If FR II bursts happen more than once in a certain direction, then during that second (or third/fourth) time radio loud activity may cause the (“empty”) QSO to vanish from sight.

Seyfert 2s may be progenitors of Seyfert 1s which may be progenitors of radio-quiet QSOs. BALs also may only be found in radio-quiet QSOs when BALs are originated by Seyfert 2s (5-1).

Some absorption lines are detected at redshifts slightly larger than the emission line redshift of the quasar. The inferred relative velocities of such systems are typically around 3000 km/s or lower than that. This may be because of infalling hydrogen clouds (which may or may not have been ejected earlier).

Heavy-element (or “metal-line”, or Type C absorption) systems are not associated with quasars because they feature narrow lines of metals. According to conventional astronomy elements heavier than hydrogen and helium are only created in stars, therefore heavy-elements can't be associated with quasars.
With the here described AGN model there can be metals though and thus quasars can be tied to the heavy-element systems, which then may suggest that FR II bursts can be repeated more than once in the same direction, for heavy-element systems can be found in numbers of 3 or 4, with redshifts conspicuously close to each other. (Edge-on such systems may not be seen, for the radio loud radiation output by synchrotron emission and thermal bremsstrahlung has stopped.) Though perhaps the multiple heavy-element systems are better explained with ionization cones of Seyfert 2s (5-1).

There are some claims that metals in heavy-element systems are slightly underabundant relative to solar values43. And (5-3): in some Lyα-forest systems high inferred neutral-H column densities and absence of metal lines imply that metals are underabundant relative to solar values43. With (almost “pure”) hydrogen produced by radio loud activity this is not a problem (as it is in big bang astronomy).

Metals in absorption clouds far away from luminous material (stars), a problem for current astronomy too43, are also easily explained by radio loud activity, because radio loud activity may not produce completely “pure” hydrogen (5-3), or because the intergalactic medium (in an infinite universe) may be contaminated with metals everywhere.

The intergalactic medium is likely to have a high level of ionization43. This too then may be explained with radio loud activity: the streams of elements poured out by radio loud activity may be likely to be stripped of their electrons.

One may reason that if those heavy-element systems are ejected by radio loud activity one should see a P Cygni feature as with BALs, but if the system is very far away from the quasar then the expanding P Cygni feature won't show up anymore.
Part of the lower redshift of the heavy-metal system relative to the emission line redshift of the QSO may be Doppler shift because the heavy-metal system may be moving towards us with high speed.

Perhaps that the matter created by radio loud activity can be divided in:

  • Matter that “escapes”, like cosmic rays (5-2).
  • Matter that “assembles”, like absorption systems.

One may wonder in what magnitude different particles produced by radio loud activity may separate from each other, for instance: protons may have different velocities than heavy elements, electrons may have different velocities than ions.
It may be more likely, though, that particles all have about the same velocity the moment they are thrown out of the AGN, but that different particles are slowed down in different ways by inertial gravity forces (3-2, 5-2, 7-1). Thus perhaps electrons may be slowed down most strongly, followed by protons and iron then may be slowed down relatively slow (of course, the intergalactic (baryonic) medium may play a role too).
Perhaps this can lead to some clues concerning the different kinds of absorption systems we observe.

QSOs that are very far away give the opportunity to study the chemical compositions of very far away galaxies by studying the absorption lines of such galaxies that are in the line of sight between us and the far away QSO. Recently Prochaska and his colleagues58 found a surprisingly high concentration of heavy elements (like lead) in such a galaxy, with ratios of elements to each other similar to that in our own galaxy. The galaxy is at a distance of 12 billion lightyears (i.e. 12 billion “big bang” light years). In an infinite universe high concentrations of heavy elements at such distances would, of course, be no surprise at all.

BL Lacertae objects and OVVs
Blazars may indeed be the face-on counterparts of FR I and II radio loud AGNs as suggested in today's conventional science43.
If radio loud activity produces HII and electrons as suggested in 5-2 then a combination of thermal bremsstrahlung and synchrotron radiation may explain BL Lacertae objects as suggested in Fig. 5-3-III.
Radio optical spectrum of the BL Lacertae object OJ 287.
Figure 5-3-III
Radio optical spectrum of the BL Lacertae object OJ 287.
(Radio spectra of compact AGN sources are usually flat. Perhaps (optically thick) thermal bremsstrahlung can explain this.)

[June 2004: A information here comes from Peterson's book43, which is from 1997. It was not until the late 1990's that within big bang cosmology general consensus formed that the blazar's gamma ray emission is largely due to inverse Compton scattering, because blazar's gamma ray jets seem to be more tightly bound than their radio jets195. So jets may not be the way of explaining high energy radiation from blazars nor the big bang explanation with Compton scattering, as reasoned hereafter. End June 2004]
Perhaps other ways of looking at blazars are possible too.
BL Lac objects main characteristic is a lack of spectral lines which is the great puzzle about the BL Lac objects, but also the strong and fast variability (linked with polarization) is puzzling.

Perhaps BL Lac objects are old g-galaxies that have shrunk and (partly) merged without (or little) hydrogen fuelling the old g-galaxy. Thus huge and compact merged objects with heavy elements may have started glowing by gravitational contraction, so strong that enormous temperatures are reached, thus producing such an enormous radiation pressure that no hydrogen can come near to the AGN core, i.e. a Broad Line Region won't be formed, simply because the atoms are blown away, thus no spectral lines can be expected (or only very faint ones).
The compact cores with heavy elements thus may reach very high temperatures, which may explain why BL Lacs are the AGNs with the hottest radiation. Perhaps that, as mentioned in 5-1 and 5-3, other AGNs do get fuelled with hydrogen, thus building up hydrogen (or helium) layers around their hot objects (like white dwarfs, 5-1). This hydrogen may cause the (secondary) radiation to be less hot than in the case of BL Lacs.

With no infalling gas no starburst region is formed. A starburst region surrounding a compact AGN source “pulls” at the compact source, or rather: the starburst region is a gravitational shield (5-1) for the compact source.
Hence if BL Lacs have no starburst region then this may result in stronger gravitational contraction of the objects in the BL Lacs, which too may account for hotter objects in BL Lacs.

When hydrogen is blown away from the BL Lac core then this hydrogen may be blown into the host galaxy which then may become relatively luminous. This may be the reason why BL Lac objects have the highest absolute B magnitudes (5-3).

A number of BL Lac objects are found in clusters of galaxies, indirect evidence that they are also galaxies8. Perhaps rather: (very) old galaxies (or rather: young AGN systems in old galaxies).
Such BL Lacs may also be (old) g-galaxies, though. For instance as mentioned in 4-1: our Galaxy, together with the smaller galaxies within 250 kpc, may be/become a g-galaxy too.
A cluster may have been shrinking for a long time, meanwhile sucking up (and “burning” away) the hydrogen within the region surrounding the cluster. In clusters, or at least certain clusters (i.e. clusters that are not fed by streams of hydrogen that, for instance, have been ejected by radio loud activity), galaxies/g-galaxies may not be able to attract much hydrogen, which may cause them to transform in BL Lac objects.

If the inner region of a BL Lac is (the center of) an old galaxy or g-galaxy that has shrunk (and merged) very strongly then the inner region of the BL Lac that produces the continuum radiation may be very small and thus the inner region may be obscured/microlensed quickly and strongly by other more outward laying regions (i.e. dark matter objects) that orbit the BL Lac core, i.e. inner region.
But also: a small inner region with many objects that orbit the very center of the inner region (“irregularly”, with old objects/galaxies having old peculiar velocities, see Fig. 4-1-I) may show strong variability (with all kind of objects having different temperatures and fluxes that orbit “irregularly”, so no or hardly periodicity in the variability will be found).
When the “big ball” of the BL Lac has contracted/shrunk very strongly then the rotation of the “big ball” may be relatively fast.
Thus very strong and very fast variability may be expected with BL Lacs.

BL Lacertae itself sometimes changes its optical emission by a factor 20. In an article37 about gravitational microlensing a star changed its luminosity by a factor 20 (by microlensing) too, which may make microlensing a serious candidate for at least parts of the variability of BL Lac objects (and AGNs in general). (Also a group of objects, like an old galaxy, can cause microlensing.)

As mentioned in 5-1: a polarized spectrum can result from scattering or reflection of the AGN continuum, either by dust or by free electrons43.

When other dark matter objects within the inner BL Lac region orbit the BL Lac core, then such orbiting objects may have much dust surrounding them, which may explain the high polarization of BL Lacs54. Dust may be a small chance though in BL Lacs, because it gets sublimated (though perhaps it is continuously produced by (many) clashing dark matter objects, which are particularly with many the moment they pass as a group in front of the BL Lac core, thus obscuring or microlensing; such a group (for instance an old g-galaxy) may also (partly) shield dust from sublimating radiation of the core; and: can there be dust consisting of much heavier elements than silicate/graphite with a higher sublimation temperature?).
Also: when not much outboard (4-4) hydrogen is attracted because there is little outboard hydrogen available then there (probably) may be relatively much outboard dust going to the BL Lac. And: where hydrogen is blown away by the compact source perhaps (larger) dust particles do go to the compact source (where they will be sublimated). (Dust is constantly being fed into our Solar System. Dust particles smaller than 1 μm are blown out of the Solar System by radiation pressure. Larger dust particles spiral towards the Sun by the Poynting-Robertson effect8. Perhaps BL Lacs can be constantly fed by dust too.)

Perhaps polarization is most likely caused by electrons (5-1). Where ions get blown away from the AGN core, electrons may fall into the core, which may produce the strong polarization.
And: if pulsar activity can cause the outflow of electrons (6-1) then pulsars in BL Lacs (being assemblages of many old dark matter objects) may cause presence of electrons in BL Lacs as well.
(Of course, polarization may also be the result of both dust and electrons.)

BL Lac objects don't have the high z values as quasars. Perhaps only relatively small AGNs can become BL Lac objects. Perhaps hat bigger potential BL Lac objects always attract such big amounts of hydrogen and/or dust that they will show other AGN features, for instance a Broad Line Region (5-1). Some potential BL Lac objects thus may become quasars.

[June 2004: Recently big bang astronomers spotted Q0906+6930, a radio loud QSO, that also can be typed as a gamma-“blazar”193, with a redshift of 5.5. They think that they spotted a black hole so massive that it's more than 10 billion times the mass of our sun and or stymied about how a black hole could have gotten so big so fast (i.e. one billion years after the big bang)194.
An infinite universe model doesn't have no problem at all finding enormous AGNs at large distances (because the “big balls” can be enormous, 5-1, but also because Q0906+6930 may be a cluster of QSOs/galaxies, 5-1).
Because the QSO is enormous big it is not surprising that the compact source has many objects that are extremely hot, which then can account for the gamma rays, and, regarding it is so big, it is also not surprising that it has by far the highest radio loudness of any QSO with z larger than z=5193 (the biggest “blazar” so far, distant “blazars” seem to dominate the gamma-ray sky194, see also 4-2).
I wonder if Q0906+6930 can be an example of a (once a) BL Lacertae object that has turned itself into a QSO, i.e. perhaps that Q0906+6930 once had no BLR while radiating enormous fluxes of extremely high energy radiation. End June 2004]

Surrounding the hot inner core there may be very many dark matter objects (like our Earth) with many different low temperatures like warm (infrared) to low (microwaves) to very low (radio waves) temperatures (so no black body curve though it is blackbody radiation). Such (groups of) dark matter objects may cause variability (by obscuring/microlensing) of hotter radiation, and radiate themselves at lower wavelengths (also pulsars may play a role, 5-1).
But (the above described) electrons (5-3) may also bring (much of the) low temperature radiation by synchrotron radiation or/and free-free emission.

Only 1% or so of optically bright quasars have polarizations greater than 3% (up to 35%). The highly polarized quasars are compact radio sources, have flat radio spectra and steep optical ones, and exhibit rapid (days to years), large-amplitude variability at optical wavelengths. Hence, high-polarization quasars share many characteristics with BL Lac objects8. This may favour the above described “big-ball”/little-hydrogen BL Lac model (5-3) relative to the earlier mentioned face-on/radio-loud BL Lac model (5-3).

OVVs may be different than BL Lacs because in OVVs (a little more) hydrogen may have fuelled the AGN, leading to (stronger) emission and absorption lines in OVV spectra.
OVVs have higher redshifts, perhaps because of the evolutionary state of the region in which we are situated (= our Chappell, 5-4). Perhaps there is not enough hydrogen in nearby intergalactic space for BL Lacs to (have) become OVVs. And: OVVs may be seen at bigger distances because they are fuelled with hydrogen and thus have bigger fluxes.

Does one may get:
BL Lacs –› less gas –› higher temperatures/less luminous
OVVs –› more gas –› lower temperatures/more luminous

One may wonder about the here suggested very high black body temperatures of BL Lac objects, especially in relation to temperatures that lead to radio loud activity. Surface temperatures around 1012 K may be around the highest possible, thus bringing high-energy radiation of BL Lacs. Even much higher temperatures (with very high pressures) may exist in AGN compact cores with very thick mantles, preceding radio loud activity (5-1, 5-2).

If the “big-ball”/little-hydrogen BL Lac concept (5-3) is right then at a certain moment the BL Lac may have radiated away so much energy that the radiation pressure becomes less. After that the BL Lac may transform (by “allowing” hydrogen to fall in) into a radio quiet AGN with a Broad Line Region, like a Seyfert 1 or a radio quiet QSO.
But also: if dark matter objects do fall into the BL Lac core then the objects in the core may merge and contract so strongly that the BL Lac becomes radio loud, thus turning into a radio loud QSO or a radio galaxy. (Perhaps one day a radio-loud BL Lac will be discovered.) [July 2004: A radio-loud AGN that has much BL Lac characteristics has been discovered, (5-3). Perhaps the object is an example of a BL Lac that has turned itself into a (radio loud) QSO. End July 2004]

Perhaps that BL Lacs show quantization (Padovani/Giommi59: Figure 2, peaks at z=.2-.3, .6 and .9) like quasars (see hereafter at Quantization of quasars).
Arp too has found that BL Lacs show the same redshift quantization as quasars29.
This quantization may be explained the same way the quantization of quasars may be explained (5-4).

Still, of course, BL Lacs may be the face-on counterparts of FR I sources (and OVVs the face-on counterparts of FR II sources) as thought right now in conventional science, though this concept has problems43.

Part 1 The expansion redshift paradigm
Part 2 The relativity paradigm
Part 3 The quantum mechanics and Newtonian gravity paradigms
Part 4 The big bang paradigm
Part 5 The black hole paradigm
Part 6 The neutron star and degenerate gas paradigms
Part 7 The star formation and solar system formation paradigms