An Astronomy Model within an Infinite Universe

Eit Gaastra

In a Universe infinite in space and time, Population II stars may blacken, cool down, assemble hydrogen, and ignite as Population I stars, which finally blacken too, assemble hydrogen, etc. In this way, stars with very big heavy-element cores may come to existence, which may explain the intrinsic (gravitational) redshift of white dwarfs as well as the intrinsic (gravitational) redshift of bright blue stars. When celestial objects (with heavy elements) become very big, the gravitational contraction may become so high that endothermic reactions start: elements may fuse into elements higher than iron while absorbing low temperature (CBR) radiation, which may explain pulsars. When celestial objects become extremely big, then a reaction may start that turns elements higher than iron into very small elements, mainly HII and electrons, which then may explain radio loud activity by AGNs. Shrunken remnants of old galaxies may become the nuclei of new galaxies as well as the nuclei of AGNs. The cause of solar system formation may by objects (future planets) that travel through interstellar space, attracted to stars.

In the 1980's I got a MSc degree chemical engineering, worked as an environmental researcher for two years, and quit my job to write novels full time. Writing novels got me thinking about the meaning of life, and this resulted in a theory that combined philosophy, psychology, evolution biology, physics and astronomy to unravel a bit of the “what's the meaning of life” quest, which I basically answered by “just to have some fun”. One of the ideas within this theory was that cosmological redshift may be caused by the interaction of light with minute particles that cause gravity, a so-called tired light redshift. Another idea concerned the concepts of time and space, which I then considered and still consider as not physically real. In my opinion physical reality only concerns matter and the distance and movement of matter relative to other matter, where I see entities like photons or neutrinos as matter too. It turned out that such ways of reasoning already were thought up by Gottfried Leibniz (1646-1716) and Ernst Mach (1838-1916) who both attacked the ideas about absolute time and absolute space by Isaac Newton (1642-1726).

Later, when I read a book about the theory of relativity, I got the idea that the apparent constancy of light may be explained by light adjusting its velocity to the Earth because of the gravity of the Earth, an ether theory.

Later still, I started to think about an infinite old as well as an infinite big Universe, and how in such a Universe there ought to be numerous old blackened cooled down stars or remnants of stars that may explain the missing dark matter problem as well as the cosmic background radiation. Cold and dark remnants of old stars would explain the darkness of the sky at night. Remnants of stars may cool down to the temperature of the Universe (2.7 K) and act as blackbody radiators absorbing hot photons from stars and emitting photons with a temperature of 2.7 K. Meanwhile, a friend of mine had found a pushing gravity concept on the internet (gravity particles continually going in and out of matter), which I could use very well, for example to solve the gravity riddle, (the gravity riddle is that gravity becomes infinite in an infinite Universe with Newtonian and relativistic gravity), and to get rid of concepts like black holes. So, with space and time as not physically existing products of our brains and with an ether theory and with pushing gravity I could forget about Newton's absolute space, Newton's absolute time and Einstein's space-time.

The big bang model is based on relativity as well as big bang explanations of:
1. cosmological redshift
2. cosmic background radiation
3. the dark sky at night
4. the gravity riddle
5. helium abundance

Helium abundance is easily explained with stars in an infinite Universe having very much time to produce helium. So, with the mentioned alternatives a Universe infinite in space and time could be contemplated. In January 2002 I published on the internet an infinite Universe model. One month later I got a letter from John E. Chappell (who was told about me by William C. Mitchell) who invited me to join the NPA. I joined and only then I realized that others had found the same alternatives for relativity and big bang cosmology: Leibniz/Mach/ether concepts, tired light, cosmic background radiation as the equilibrium temperature of the Universe, pushing gravity and an infinite Universe, as well as the same solutions for the gravity riddle, the dark sky at night problem and helium abundance.

The fact that others had independently found the same things gave me a lot of confidence. The physics and cosmology on my website now could be backed up by references to other scientists and I could concentrate on astronomy.

Basic astronomy concepts
My basic astronomy concepts are:
1. Galaxies and clusters of galaxies shrink and become the centers of future galaxies as well as the centers of AGNs.
2. Stars shine, run out of gas, blacken, assemble hydrogen, shine with a bigger core of heavy elements, run out of gas, blacken, assemble hydrogen, shine with a bigger core of heavy elements, etc.
3. Pulsars may have a mechanism that acts as the cooling down mechanism of the Universe.
4. Hydrogen may be produced by radio loud activity of AGNs.
5. Solar systems may originate from dark matter objects, which may be old stars, swinging themselves around (new and bigger) stars.

The basic astronomy concepts, together with the mentioned physics and cosmology, are worked out on my website:

Clusters and galaxies
Within big bang cosmology the formation of galaxies are explained by the contraction of huge clouds of gas (hydrogen and helium).

The Universe consists of walls, filaments and clusters of galaxies next to non-luminous voids. Galaxies have systematic, peculiar flow velocities that make the non-luminous voids bigger. Galaxies seem to be attracted to points where huge amounts of mass are concentrated.

One of my basic ideas is: galaxies may move towards each other by gravity and start circling around each other while shrinking, that is: a cluster of galaxies may shrink as well as that the galaxies within the cluster shrink.

Galaxies moving towards each other, finally circling around each other may take a very long time and so the galaxies may become dark during that process. The same may happen with clusters. Also, clusters may move towards each other and start circling around each other. So where we see luminous galaxies or luminous clusters of galaxies now we may see non-luminous voids in the future.

As an example you can take our Local Group of galaxies. There are 3 larger galaxies in the Local Group: the Milky Way and the Andromeda galaxy and its smaller companion M33. There are smaller galaxies concentrating around our Galaxy and around the Andromeda/M33 galaxies. If one starts thinking about our Local Group on an extremely large time scale one may picture in the very distant future our Local Group a as shrunken assemblage of old (blackened/merged) stars. By then our Galaxy and Andromeda/M33 may have swallowed their smaller surrounding galaxies (and perhaps our Galaxy and Andromeda/M33 have merged). Meanwhile hydrogen from intergalactic and intercluster space may be attracted to the remains of the Local Group, thus finally producing a new galaxy with our darkened shrunken rotating Local Group as the new galaxy's nucleus.

Thus the galactic nucleus of our Galaxy, which is the same as the nucleus of the Andromeda Galaxy, may be an old cluster itself. The nucleus of our Galaxy consists of multiple smaller nuclei. Perhaps these nuclei are extremely old shrunken galaxies. If there is an old shrunken cluster in the nucleus of our Galaxy then this cluster may be the mechanism that has “driven” our Galaxy into its spiral shape (right now conventional science does not know what “drives” our Galaxy). There are two main groups of galaxies in the Universe: elliptical galaxies (or ellipticals) and spiral galaxies (or spirals). There are 4 times more spirals than ellipticals. Concentrated groups of old shrunken galaxies within the centers of galaxies may be the driving force that turns elliptical galaxies slowly into spiral galaxies (during which process the elliptical shrinks). If elliptical galaxies are the progenitors of spiral galaxies then this would explain why elliptical galaxies are a class bigger (i.e. bigger diameter, more mass, higher luminosity) than spiral galaxies. A spiral phase may be likely to be a much longer phase than an elliptical phase, which may explain the fact that there are more spirals than ellipticals.

In a shrunken spiral galaxy hydrogen (from intergalactic space) will still be streaming towards the nucleus of the galaxy. Such hydrogen then concentrates more and more towards the nucleus and lights up old darkened stars towards the nucleus. This “concentration effect” may explain why dark matter objects light up towards the nuclei of spiral galaxies and dark matter objects (mostly likely old blackened stars on the outskirts of the old elliptical galaxies) towards the halo do not light up, which would explain the missing dark matter towards the halo in spirals. Missing dark matter in spirals is a mystery for big bang scientists for 30 years now.
Stars spew out gas by solar winds. Such gas too may be likely to stream towards the center of the galaxy.
Also old remnants in the form of solid heavy element objects (that have escaped from galaxies) coming from intergalactic space may flow towards galaxies. Such old remnants will be more likely to start rotating the galaxies than hydrogen coming from intergalactic space (which rather will stream towards the center of the galaxy). Older galaxies like spiral galaxies then will have assembled more of such old (solid heavy element object) dark matter from intergalactic space than (younger) elliptical galaxies.

The kinematics of spirals (i.e. the speed of stars at a certain distance from the center of the (rotating) galaxy) are easy to measure, which was already done 30 years ago. The kinematics of spirals showed that towards the halo there ought to be much more (dark) matter. The kinematics of ellipticals are much harder to measure. Still, the kinematics of the outer parts of three intermediate-luminosity elliptical galaxies have been studied in recent years. The galaxies' velocity dispersion profiles were found to decline with radius; dynamic modelling of the data indicated the presence of little, if any dark matter in these galaxies’ halos. This was reported in 2003. A team led by Aaron Romanowsky of the University of Nottingham in the UK found that the dynamics of the elliptical galaxies could be explained without the need for dark matter, in contrast to the motion of spiral galaxies. The unexpected result questions the widely held belief within conventional astronomy that elliptical galaxies form when galaxies rich in dark matter collide. Ellipticals having hardly any dark matter and spirals having a lot of dark matter therefore is a major problem within conventional astronomy. Ellipticals having less dark matter than spirals is argued on my website throughout the chapters 4-3 and 4-4 and was already predicted on my website in January 2002. And with a rotating shrunken galaxy or shrunken cluster of galaxies slowly bringing an elliptical into rotation (as also argued on my website since January 2002) also the velocity dispersion profiles declining with radius in elliptical galaxies is explained. (I found out about the “absence of dark matter in elliptical galaxies 2003” observation on March 11 2004. My January 2002 concepts have been registered by Dutch law in January 2002, so my absence-of-dark-matter-in-elliptical-galaxies-prediction is something I can prove.)

Non-luminous voids become bigger while clusters of galaxies shrink. One would expect remains of stars and galaxies that are thrown out of galaxies or clusters to concentrate in the center of large non-luminous voids. Such concentrations of dark matter then will attract hydrogen and light up in the center of those voids. In other words: we should see “baby-galaxies” in extremely empty space or in the non-luminous voids. Such galaxies have been found, they are called blue compact dwarf galaxies. These blue compact dwarf galaxies are situated in the center of non-luminous voids with no other galaxies nearby.

Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs)
When galaxies and clusters of galaxies can shrink and merge then galaxy or cluster “residues” will have certain features, like becoming extremely massive. Right now conventional astronomy believes that black holes are situated in the center of galaxies as well as in the center of AGNs (quasars are a certain type of AGN; AGNs are situated in the center of host galaxies). The black hole paradigm may turn out to be untenable without the theory of relativity and pushing gravity instead of Newtonian gravity. The black hole concept may be replaced by shrunken galaxies and shrunken clusters of galaxies concentrating matter in the nuclei of galaxies.

When a star shines at a certain temperature it sends out a certain radiation profile. An AGN sends out radiation with a radiation profile that looks like the summation of many radiation profiles of many objects (with very different temperatures). Unlike spectra of stars and galaxies, AGN spectra can not be described like a star, which is a single object with blackbody emission at a single temperature, or as a number of stars over a small range in temperature (like a normal (no AGN) galaxy). Non-thermal processes, like very fast electrons in the environment of a black hole going through a magnetic field, thus sending out radiation of many different wavelengths, are used by conventional science to explain the spectra of AGNs.

The situation becomes different when one looks at the nuclei of AGNs as big balls of rotating mass objects that have all kinds of temperatures. Many different objects, with very different temperatures over a broad temperature range then may produce the spectra of AGNs. A shrunken galaxy or a shrunken (merged) cluster of galaxies will have many different mass objects with many different temperatures. Therefore, when the nucleus of an AGN, often called the compact source, is a shrunken galaxy or a shrunken cluster of galaxies then this may explain the spectra of AGNs.

Stars and white dwarfs
The big bang paradigm proposes a certain kind of star formation: big clouds of gas and dust are supposed to contract into stars. In an infinite old Universe there will be a lot of dark matter, like dark matter in the form of old stars that have blackened or dark matter because stars have clashed. Then you can have star formation because gas and dust assemble around such dark matter objects. Thus dark matter (objects) may trigger star formation.

With much more time than “the 14 billion big bang year limit” stars may blacken, cool down, assemble new hydrogen and light up again with bigger cores of heavy elements which cause the stars to burn more fiercely with higher temperatures. This may explain the difference between the two main groups of stars in the Universe: Population I stars versus Population II stars. Population II stars may blacken, cool down, assemble hydrogen and light up as more fiercely burning Population I stars. So, with ellipticals being younger galaxies it may not be a coincidence that ellipticals contain many Population II stars where spirals have more Population I stars than ellipticals have.

After a number of “blacken - assemble hydrogen - light up” cycles stars with very big cores of heavy elements may come into existence. Such giant stars may have big cores of heavy elements as well as a lot of hydrogen.
Relatively small stars with big cores of heavy elements and relatively thin layers of gas surrounding the big cores may fuse gas relatively close to the surface. Stars with big cores of heavy elements may be hot stars like white dwarfs (with relatively thin layers of gas) and bright blue stars (with relatively big layers of gas, like O and B stars). Right now big bang science has a problem with the formation of giant stars in heavy metal rich environments, because the contraction of a cloud of gas with a lot of heavy elements would bring gas fusion quickly, before the star is very big and then radiation pressure prohibits more gas to fall to the star.

Within conventional science the merging of a large amount of matter can originate a black hole, or a neutron star, better known as a pulsar (a pulsar can be seen as a smaller and less dense variant of a black hole), or a degenerate gas object, better known as a white dwarf (a white dwarf can be seen as a smaller and less dense variant of a pulsar), but without the theory of relativity and with pushing gravity there may not be such concepts.

Conventional astronomy thinks that white dwarfs consist of a degenerate electron gas, which would come into existence when a star collapses after which gravity brings the remaining gas of the star into a very compressed state, after which the star slowly cools down. Conventional science considers white dwarfs as objects with no fusion processes going on, which may be something that remains to be seen when in an eternal old Universe very big cores of heavy elements can come into existence. Then, one may have big cores with heavy elements that are cooled down and assemble a relatively small amount of hydrogen until a fusion process starts up in a relatively thin layer of gas, which then would explain the high temperature at the surface of white dwarfs (old former big stars with little gas left burning close to their surface may end up as white dwarfs too).

When white dwarfs and bright blue stars have big cores of heavy elements, this may explain the intrinsic redshift of such objects. Conventional science has no explanation for the intrinsic redshift of bright blue stars. Intrinsic redshift is redshift that is not caused by expansion/cosmological/tired light redshift, nor Doppler redshift because of a (peculiar) velocity of the object, it is redshift that is caused by physical properties within the object.

Cores of heavy elements may become bigger and bigger (after each star phase), but there may be a certain limit. Perhaps, at a certain moment the big core of heavy elements becomes so big that an endothermic process starts. When light elements fuse into higher elements energy is released, but above iron the situation becomes different, then fusion takes energy. Perhaps in very big cores of heavy elements such fusion can take place. This may explain pulsars. A pulsar then may heat up by gravitational contraction until an endothermic reaction starts which cools down the pulsar, after which the endothermic reaction stops, after which the pulsar heats up by gravitational contraction again, etc. Perhaps, in such a way the short bursts of radiation from pulsars can be explained. Perhaps such an endothermic reaction can absorb (low temperature) photons instead of emitting photons, as with an exothermic reaction like hydrogen fusing into helium. (Perhaps cosmic background radiation can play a role this way; the number of photons in the cosmic background radiation is at least 10,000 greater than the photons that have been emitted by stars.) Right now conventional science holds that in pulsars matter is compressed by gravity into so-called neutron stars, which are supposed to rotate very fast and hence send out radiation as a lighthouse. The degenerate electron gas concept (in which the material more closely resembles a solid than a gas) in the case of white dwarfs and the degenerate neutron gas concept (in which protons and electrons are squeezed into neutrons) in the case of pulsars are based by the believe of big bang scientists that the composition of a stars surface represents the interior of stars. So therefore we have those concepts of compressed gas within big bang astronomy. The situation becomes completely different in an infinite Universe where you can have massive objects of (very) heavy elements. And with pushing gravity instead of Newtonian gravity and relativistic gravity one can't get extremely big gravity forces working on very small volumes.

One may wonder what happens when a pulsar runs out of fuel, i.e. when there are no elements left to fuse into higher elements, so the pulsar heats up by gravitational contraction. A pulsar then may heat up, until higher elements like uranium break down into smaller elements and so pulsars may end as Type Ia supernovae.
Because Type Ia supernovae are associated with stars of roughly the mass of our Sun they are really a puzzle for big bang cosmologists, for it is hard for them to see how a solar-mass star can detonate as violently as a supernovae. Type Ia supernovae have no hydrogen and helium lines in the optical spectra and all Type Ia supernovae have virtually the same luminosity, which all may be explained by pulsars having certain masses and no hydrogen or helium (left) when they explode. When an element like uranium breaks down into smaller elements neutrinos are released, which may explain the neutrino bursts during supernovae.

Type II supernovae show strong hydrogen lines, big bang cosmologists think that they arise from stars 10 to 100 times more massive than our Sun. Type II supernovae may be caused by 2 (or more) stars that (slowly) merge until their heavy element cores fuse, thus many very heavy elements may be brought together, causing them to break down in one explosion.

Radio loud activity by AGNs
When even more matter is concentrated (than in pulsars), like in the very core of a shrunken galaxy or an AGN then something else may happen. Perhaps in an extremely big core of heavy elements a huge amount of elements have been fused into the highest possible elements, like uranium. Perhaps that under enormous gravitational pressure very heavy elements can degrade into smaller elements. From uranium to iron then this would release energy. Perhaps such an energy release (together with large gravitational pressure) can cause elements to break down to the smallest elements: protons and electrons. Protons and electrons then may search for a way out of the heavy element core along the poles of the (rotating) object and result in the so-called radio loud activity by AGNs. The radio loud activity or radio waves then may be caused by electrons and protons causing synchrotron radiation and thermal bremsstrahlung. (Synchrotron radiation is radiation from an accelerating charged particle (usually an electron) in a magnetic field. Thermal bremsstrahlung is radiation generated when an electron slows down as it passes close to an atomic nucleus like a proton.)

Thus radio loud activity may be the main process in the Universe that turns heavy elements back into hydrogen. And an endothermic process as here described with pulsars may be the cooling down mechanism of the Universe as well as a mechanism that brings photons back into baryonic matter. (If protons loose energy to gravity particles and gravity particles can be absorbed by other particles into baryonic matter, for instance in an endothermic reaction in a pulsar, then this too may be a mechanism that brings nonbaryonic matter (like photons and neutrinos) back into baryonic matter.) (Baryonic matter consists of atoms made of protons and neutrons.)

One may argue that an extremely big core of heavy elements can't come into existence because it would explode in en early stage as a supernovae as mentioned above.
In the very center of a galaxy one may have very many relatively small objects merging very slowly into one object while orbiting relatively fast around a central point, which will bring a centrifugal force that opposes contraction to one object by gravity. Thus, extremely much mass (objects) may merge and contract extremely slowly into one extremely huge big heavy-element object.

Solar systems
Old blackened stars or remnants of old blackened stars may travel through our Galaxy and then be attracted to stars like our Sun. Therefore, solar system formation may be explained by dark matter objects coming from interstellar space that swing themselves around stars and thus start orbiting such stars in the form of planets, moons and smaller objects like comets. (Perhaps we are living on an old star.)
Stars are often in binary systems. When two stars orbit around each other for a very long time, they can become synchronously locked by tidal forces, so that the rotational period of each is equal to the orbital period. When such a binary star system can become a binary dark matter system that can swing itself around a (new) star, then it may be no coincidence that the sidereal rotation periods of six planets in our Solar System come in pairs: Earth/Mars (24 hours), Jupiter/Saturn (10 hours) and Uranus/Neptune (17 hours). (Those pairs also show similar chemical and physical characteristics.) (Also of course, single blackened stars/single dark matter objects can start circling around each other and become synchronously locked.)

One more thing
I have been living on social security for more than a decade. Thanks to financial support by the NPA I could fly to Denver. Being here is the best thing that has happened to me since John Chappell's invitation to join the NPA. Those who have helped me: thank you very much.