The model of an expanding (big bang) universe has been derived from the theory of relativity; the model was backed up by expansion redshift as well as the discovery of the cosmic background radiation. However, models based on an infinite universe predicted the 2.7 K cosmic background temperature prior and better than big bang models1, relativity can be replaced by an ether theory2,3 and expansion redshift can be explained by a “tired light” hypothesis2,3,4. And: gravity as a pushing force4 may rule out theoretical concepts like black holes, neutron stars and degenerate gasses; the cosmic background radiation may be seen as the equilibrium temperature of the universe2,3,4. Here an infinite universe model is presented that connects star formation, galaxy formation and AGN formation.

In a universe that is infinite in space and time galaxies may move towards each other which may explain cluster formation. Galaxies and clusters of galaxies then may shrink and become the centres of future galaxies by attracting hydrogen from intergalactic space. Thus, our Local Group may become the centre of a galaxy in the very far future and the galactic nucleus of our Galaxy may be an old (shrunk) cluster of galaxies3.

When galaxies shrink they may end up as concentrated assemblages of many objects within relatively small spheres (for instance spheres as big as our Solar System). Such concentrated assemblages of many objects may attract hydrogen from intergalactic space which then may turn objects within such assemblages into stars with many different temperatures, i.e. such assemblages may become the continuum sources of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) that produce spectral energy distributions that can be characterized crudely as a power-law.

Galaxies shrinking into AGNs may be the reason why (high redshift) quasars (high redshift because of very strong gravitational redshift) often are found around low redshift (main) galaxies and Seyferts5,6: old galaxies may have turned into quasars that cluster around a main galaxy or a Seyfert.

Stars like our Sun blacken, but, after becoming cold enough, blackened stars will assemble hydrogen again and may light up as new stars or white dwarfs3. Thus, a Population II star may blacken, cool down, assemble hydrogen and light up as a Population I star. This way objects with very big heavy element cores may come to existence, which may explain the intrinsic (gravitational) redshift of white dwarfs as well as the intrinsic (gravitational) redshift of bright blue stars3,5.

When heavy element objects become very big the gravitational contraction may become so high that endothermic reactions start: elements may fuse into elements higher than iron, which may explain pulsars3. Thus, pulsars may get heated by gravitational contraction until an endothermic reaction starts that cools the pulsar, after which the endothermic reaction stops and gravitational contraction heats the pulsar, etc.

When heavy element objects become extremely big then a reaction may start that turns elements higher than iron (for instance uranium) into very small elements, for instance HII and electrons (producing thermal bremsstrahlung and synchrotron radiation), which then may be the main hydrogen production mechanism in an infinite universe: radio loud activity by AGNs3.

E. Gaastra*

*Groningen, The Netherlands

1. Assis, A.K.T., Neves, M.C.D. Apeiron 2, 79-84 (1995).
Or go to:
2. Assis, K.T.A. Relational Mechanics (Apeiron, Montreal, Quebec, 1999).
4. Edwards, R.E. Pushing Gravity: New Perspectives on Le Sage's Theory of Gravitation (Apeiron, Montreal, Quebec, 2002).
5. Arp, H. Seeing Red: Redshifts, Cosmology and Academic Science (Apeiron, Montreal, Quebec, 1998).
6. Arp, H., Burbidge, E.M., Chu, Y., Flesch, E., Patat, F., Rupprecht, G. Astron. Astrophys. 391, 833-840 (2002).