THE INFINITE UNIVERSE (Part 1, Chapter 1-1)
© Eit Gaastra
CONTENTS of this website (bottom of this webpage)
PART 1 THE EXPANSION REDSHIFT PARADIGM
Part 1 (chapters 1-1 and 1-2) presents a connection between physics, astronomy, philosophy, psychology and evolution biology. The redshift of far away galaxies is explained with a tired light hypothesis.
CHAPTER 1-1: BOTTOMLINES
Words by themselves give rise to feelings, but combined into sentences by logic they represent what we call a thought.
In essence a thought is nothing but a series of feelings. Thoughts are feelings with logic.
Thus for a deeper understanding of ourselves and the universe we can forget about thoughts and concentrate on feelings, like physicists can forget about molecules and concentrate on atoms (or even subatomic particles) when they are searching for a deeper understanding of matter.
Suppose you feel an itch on your back and you are about to reach out and scratch, but at that very moment there is an earthquake and you run out of your house and forget about the itch.
A feeling that is in us very consciously can be pushed aside by another feeling and thus become subconscious.
Consciousness and subconsciousness can be put on a scale with two ends.
Thus for a deeper understanding of ourselves and the universe we can forget about consciousness and subconsciousness and, again, concentrate on feelings.
I define “to live” or “life” as the capability to feel, not the capability to replicate.
Something that lives is an entity that has as such a beginning and an end and is able to experience its being from its begin till its end, or: to feel its existence from its begin till its end.
If you combine the extremely weak feeling of an atom with the aforementioned lack of a sharp line between consciousness and subconsciousness then an atom will have some kind of extremely weak consciousness as well.
As examples of living entities I name: humans, animals, plants, cells of (multicellular) organisms, bacteria, viruses, proteins, amino acids, molecules, atoms, subatomic particles, neutrinos and photons.
Particles have been observed to come out of nothing, exist for a while, and vanish again6. The meaning of the particle's existence (= life) may have been: the particle's experience of its existence, or: its feelings.
[December 2004: Of course, it remains to be seen whether or not a particle can come to existence out of completely nothing. On this website I often reason that for example photons may exist of multiple smaller particles, which too may exist of multiple smaller particles, which too may exist of multiple smaller particles, etc. There may always be a smaller class of particles to be found. This way one may never know if there are exceptions to the conservation of energy law. End December 2004]
The basic postulate from which all my ideas unroll is: Everything that exists wants the biggest amount of pleasant feelings.
[May 2003: This means, as I have written in a philosophical/cosmological article in Oct '94 (in the Dutch philosophy magazine Filosofie), that the meaning of life is: (pleasant) feelings. Also the meaning of our lifes and life in general (animals, plants, bacteria, but also non-biological “life” like a hydrogen molecule or a photon) is: feelings. End May 2003]
What are feelings? Experience of existence.
But the deepest way of understanding feelings is, of course: just feel it.
Feelings are based on the fight against finity. Feeling good is successfully fighting against finity.
Fight against finity and feeling good are strongly connected for all sorts of life, including our lifes. Our feelings and also feelings in general are related, directly or indirectly, to the will to keep on existing.
Bluntly you may say: everything that enhances existence gives pleasant feelings and everything that reduces existence gives unpleasant feelings.
How could primitive entities develop themselves into humans? Possibly by wanting the biggest amount of (pleasant) feelings.
Because of the interaction between cells of our body, we feel, as an entity of interacting cells, stronger feelings than our cells feel (as individuals).
During evolution mass particles (may have) started from a subatomic level forming respectively atoms, amino acids, proteins and cellular life. I think this may have happened because entities wanted as much pleasant feelings/interactions as possible.
Without a natural tendency of atoms to form amino acids biological life can not come to existence.
[April 2004: Things may be different when you have (DNA) organisms that can travel by (for instance) meteorites or planets through interstellar/intergalactic space and thus go to other places (within a galaxy or within a cluster of galaxies or within the Universe). If such organisms only need atoms as basic nutrients (and no amino acids) then you'll have a different story, then (DNA) life may have been around in the Universe for ever. Of course, then you have to answer the question: “How did (DNA) life ever come to existence?” But this can be the same question as: “How did the (infinite) Universe ever start?” Thus, the Universe and (DNA) life both may be infinite. End April 2004]
[January 19 2006: Scientists have found that hardy bacteria can survive a trip into space, and now the list of natural astronauts includes lichen. Lichens are not actually single organisms but an association of millions of algal cells, which cooperate in the process of photosynthesis and are held in a fungal mesh. The algal cells and the fungus have a symbiotic relationship, with the algal cells providing the fungus with food and the fungus providing the alga with a suitable living environment for growth379.
[September 10 2005: Infrared and radio telescope observations of molecular clouds (in outer space) have detected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as well as fatty acids, simple sugars, faint amounts of the amino acid glycine, and over 100 other molecules, including water, carbon monoxide, ammonia, formaldehyde, and hydrogen cyanide. Although PAHs aren't found in living cells, they can be converted into quinones, molecules that are involved in cellular energy processes. For instance, quinones play an essential role in photosynthesis, helping plants turn light into chemical energy. The molecular clouds have never been sampled directly (they're too far away), so to confirm what is occurring chemically in the clouds, a research team set up laboratory experiments to mimic the cloud conditions. In one experiment, a PAH/water mixture is vapor-deposited onto salt and then bombarded with ultraviolet (UV) radiation. This allows the researchers to observe how the basic PAH skeleton turns into quinones. Irradiating a frozen mixture of water, ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, and methanol (a precursor chemical to formaldehyde) generates the amino acids glycine, alanine and serine, the three most abundant amino acids in living systems. In another experiment a frozen mixture of water, methanol, ammonia and carbon monoxide was subjected to UV radiation. This combination yielded organic material that formed bubbles when immersed in water. These bubbles are reminiscent of cell membranes that enclose and concentrate the chemistry of life, separating it from the outside world363. End September 10 2005]
[October 25 2005: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are found in every nook and cranny of our galaxy. While this is important to astronomers, it has been of little interest to astrobiologists, scientists who search for life beyond Earth. Normal PAHs aren't really important to biology. However, PAHs in space also carrying nitrogen in their structures changes everything. Polycyclic nitrogen-containing aromatic hydrocarbon (PANH) molecules were recently found to be common in space. Much of the chemistry of life, including DNA, requires organic molecules that contain nitrogen. Chlorophyll, the substance that enables photosynthesis in plants, is a good example of this class of compounds, called polycyclic aromatic nitrogen heterocycles, or PANHs374. End October 25 2005]
[January 23 2006: If you add hydrogen cyanide, acetylene and water together in a test tube and give them an appropriate surface on which to be concentrated and react, you'll get a slew of organic compounds including amino acids and a DNA purine base called adenine. Researchers spotted the organic, or carbon-containing, gases hydrogen cyanide and acetylene around a star called IRS 46. Organic gases such as those found around IRS 46 are found in our own solar system, in the atmospheres of the giant planets and Saturn's moon Titan, and on the icy surfaces of comets. They have also been seen around massive stars by the European Space Agency's Infrared Space Observatory, though these stars are thought to be less likely than sun-like stars to form life-bearing planets389. End January 23 2006]
[May 2003: Recently there have been discoveries concerning H3+, the “ATP of the cosmos”, that suggest that molecules like amino acids may have been formed in interstellar gas/dust clouds7. End May 2003]
[September 3 2007: Astronomers have found the largest negatively-charged molecule yet seen in space. The discovery of the third negatively-charged molecule in less than a year and the size of the latest anion will force a drastic revision of theoretical models of interstellar chemistry, the astronomers say. They also say that the discovery continues to add to the diversity and complexity that is already seen in the chemistry of interstellar space. It too adds to the number of paths available for making the complex organic molecules and other large molecular species that may be precursors to life in the clouds from which stars and planets form462.
[January 30 2008: Astronomers have found the first indications of highly complex organic molecules in the disk of red dust surrounding a star known as HR 4796A, which is about 220 light years from Earth. The researchers found that the spectrum of visible and infrared light scattered by the star's dust disk looks very red, the color produced by large organic carbon molecules called tholins. Tholins do not form naturally on present-day Earth because oxygen in the atmosphere would quickly destroy them, but they are hypothesized to have existed on the primitive Earth billions of years ago and may have been precursors to the biomolecules that make up living organisms. Tholins have been detected elsewhere in the solar system, such as in comets and on Saturn's moon Titan, where they give the atmosphere a red tinge. This study is the first report of tholins outside the solar system472. End January 30 2008]
There may be necessity for a chemical evolution before a biological evolution can start, with a “driving force”, a certain “will” that makes atoms “want” and thus makes atoms connect with each other to form amino acids. Before a chemical evolution can start you need a chemical/physical/astrophysical evolution in order to make heavier elements out of hydrogen. And before such a chemical/physical/astrophysical evolution you need a physical/astrophysical evolution that produces hydrogen.
In all those evolutions the particles may “feel” in a certain way and thus may have a “will” to make certain connections that makes them feel better one way or the other. This “will”, or, what I call, desire for happiness may be the driving force behind survival of the fittest.
Thus next to survival of the fittest there may be necessity for desire for happiness.
There may have been desire for happiness during the development of biological as well as non-biological entities in our universe, existence may need a reason.
Desire for happiness and survival of the fittest may be two sides of the same coin:
Desire for happiness may also explain the appearance of particles out of nothing: because their existence gave them “joy”.
Desire for happiness may “exist” by itself, without (physically) existing. As a concept, as an idea, like logic exists without (physically) existing. The reason why something physically exists, may not be physical itself.
Also: time and space make it possible for us to exist, but time and space may not be physically real themselves (see chapter 2-1).
This raises the question whether feelings are physically real or not. Perhaps this question will never be answered and may be connected with the smallest possible particles that we may never be able to measure, see also chapter 3-2. And: physical particles that appear to come out of nothing, may originate from smaller yet unknown particles, see chapter 3-2.
Part 1 The expansion redshift paradigm
Part 2 The relativity paradigm
Part 3 The quantum mechanics and Newtonian gravity paradigms
Part 4 The big bang paradigm
Part 5 The black hole paradigm
Part 6 The neutron star and degenerate gas paradigms
Part 7 The star formation and solar system formation paradigms